現代 (1974~現代)

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(5)フィリピンの言語政策の年表(2言語法以後)

1974-1975: The use of the vernacular as a main medium of instruction in Grades 1 and 2 was partially terminated officialy during the school year 1974-1975. (Sibayan 1999: 346) @ the National board of Education (NBE) abolished the use of the vernacular as a medium of instruction Grades 1 and 2 when it announced the new guidelines for a full bilingual education program on June 19, 1974. Neither the NBE nor the DEC explained the reason for this abandonment of the vernaculars. To the writer’s knowledge, no serious complaint was made about the change of policy. (Sibayan 1999: 346)

1974 (April 16): Presidential Decree 176 directed the Ministry of Education to carry out the provisions of the 1973 Constitution which provided for the Filipinization of alien schools in regard to ownership, administration and curriculum. The Ministry of Education cancelled the Chinese curriculum patterned after that in Taiwan and required the Chinese schools to follow only the Philippine curriculum used in both the public and private schools. The teaching of Chines was made optional and was only to be taught as a foreign language.

1974年:The Soriano Committee は小委員会(The Survey Committee on Bilingual Education: SCOBE)をつくり、ピリピノ語での教材や教師の能力を調査させる。その報告によれば、教材に関しては学年1と2で reading と Rizal については十分である(ここ説明が不明Bernabe p.161)。中等教育ではピリピノ語とCharacter Education を除いては十分ではない。教師のピリピノ語に関する自己評価は公立の初等学校では good であった。しかし非タガログ語地域の公立の中等学校の教師は no or little ability としている。全体としてピリピノ語を教授用語とすることは好意的であった。

1974 (29 May): The Board of National Education adopted the implementing guidelines on bilingual education, which was defined as the ‘use of Pilipino and English separately as media of instruction in definite subject areas with a special provision that Arabic shall be used in Muslim areas’. =(Department Order No.25,s. 1974 June 19, 1974) @ Sibayan (1999: 339-340)をも、参照のこと。

1974 (June 19): Sec. Juan L. Manuel issued DECS Order No.25, which promulgated the guidelines for the implementation of bilingual education. It states “The use of English and Pilipino as media of instruction shall begin in Grade I in all schools. In Grades I and II, the vernacular used in the locality or place where the school is located shall be the auxiliary medium of instruction; this use of the vernacular shall be restored to only when necessary to facilitate understanding of the concepts being taught through the prescribed medium for the subject, English, Pilipino or Arabic, as the case may be. ; Pilipino shall be used as medium of instruction in the following subject areas: social studies/social science, character education, health education and physical education. Phase I: School year 1974-1975 through school year 1977-78. This four-year period shall be a transition period. In the Tagalog area schools may begin to use Pilipino in the subjects above mentioned. In the non-Tagalog area shall develop plans for an immediate or a gradual shift to Pilipino. Phase II: School year 1978-79 through school year 1981-82. In the Tagalog area the use of Pilipino became mandatory. In non-Tagalog areas the use became mandatory according the schedule: Primary 1978/79, Intermediate 79/80, First and Second year high school 80/81, Third and Fourth year high school 81/82. (Sutaria 1989: 350-1)

1974: The Board は Resolution No.74-4 を決議する。それは2言語教育を定めた Department Order No.25 (文部省令第25号)の基礎になる。

1974年:The Bilingual Education Act が成立する。ピリピノ語は初等と中等学校において、社会、work education,道徳、保健、体育、音楽、芸術で用いられ、英語は科学、数学、技術の教科に用いられることになった。10年間の施行期間が予定された。第一段階は4年間であり、74-75年から77-78年までの期間である。非タガログ語地域では移行へは準備の整い方を見ながらと若干の余裕は与えられた。第二段階は77-78年から81-82年までであり、上記科目のピリピノ語の使用は義務となった。高等教育でも2言語教育への準備をするように規定されたが、Department Order No.25 は曖昧であった(Bernabe p.165)。
地方語は1957年から1973年までは小学校における教育言語として公認されていたが、1974年の二種言語教育法により他の少数民族語と同じく教育補助用語に留まる。政府は土着語の振興には消極的であり、何等の予算措置も講じていない。

授業で用いる言語 授業科目
中等学校 ピリピノ語・英語 ピリピノ語・英語
6学年 ピリピノ語・英語 ピリピノ語・英語
5学年 ピリピノ語・英語 ピリピノ語・英語
4学年 ピリピノ語・英語 ピリピノ語・英語
3学年 ピリピノ語・英語 ピリピノ語・英語
2学年 ピ・英・地方語(補助) ピリピノ語・英語
1学年 ピ・英・地方語(補助) ピリピノ語・英語

○ 二言語教育のための教科書とマニュアルを3つのCurriculum Development Centers(CDC)が準備することになった。The Science Education and Mathematics Center at the University of the Philippines; the Social Studies Center at the Department of Education and Culture; and the Communication Arts (English and Pilipino) Center at the Language Study Center at the Philippine Normal College.

1974年:Rivrro-Labigan が語彙の調査をおこなう。LSC-PNC study の結果を追確認しただけである。(Santiago 1979:44)

??:戒厳令の時代、Twin Hearts Romances という新しいジャンルの本が現れた。当初は、4つであったが、次第に数が増えていった。これは、English Mills & Boon stories を真似たものであり、100ページぐらいの分量であった。下層階級を購買層にしてあり、内容はcornyであると言うことである。(McFarland 1998:99)

1975年:Dr. Porfirio M. Recioが中心となって、 Glossary of Medical Termsを刊行する。97ページほどの小冊子で、277の人体の部分等の名称をフィリピン諸語、英語、スペイン語、マレー語等で一覧できるようにしてある。基本的な語彙であったので、タガログ語の造語は必要なくて、そのまま普通のタガログ語でまにあった。この本は Recio の前の本 ‘Questions You Have Wanted To Ask Your Patient / But Could Not Because He Spoke Another Dialect’ を補うものであった。 (Santiago, 1979 :39-40)

1975: The DECS Order did not give specific guidelines regarding the implementation of the bilingual program at the tertiary level. The Institute of National Language took notice and recommended to the National Board of Education that implementing guidelines be formulated for the higher education institutions. Consequently, Department Order No. 50, s. 1975 was issued by the Board prescribing the offering of English and Pilipino courses as part of the curricula of tertiary institutions. Further, the Order states that by school year 1984, all graduates of tertiary institutions should be able to pass examinations in English and/or Pilipino for the practice of their professions. (Internet: Espiritu)

1975年:Mga Katawagan sa Edukasyong Bilinggwal が Surian ng Wikang Pambansa から出版される。2言語政策に必要な語彙を含む実験的な版であり、1976年と1977年に改訂された。その内容分野は、social studies, economics, geography, home economics, athletics, social science, work education, character education, health education, physical education, and pedagogical terms. である。加算された11文字はあまり使われず、土着語が好まれた。(Santiago 1979: 37)

1975: Department Order No.50,s.1975 ordered that all graduates of tertiary institutions be able to pass examinations in English and/or Pilipino for the practice of their professions.

1975: The Survey of Outcomes of Elementary Education, 1975 (SOUTELE) revealed that 25.7% of the pupils use Tagalog as their dialect at home; 25%, Cebuano; 10.6%, Ilocano, 7.6% Hiligaynon, and 6.8%, Bicolano. Only 1.5% use English at home. (Sutaria 1989:30)

1976年4月1日:国語研究所はMga Tuntunin sa Ortograpiyang Filipino (Guidelines on Filipino Orthography)を発行して、スペルの付け方の手引き書を発行する。24文字から31文字へアルファベットが拡大されるのを研究所は了解して、1940年版と比較するならば、狭い画一主義から使用者の選択にまかせる方向に進んだ。研究所の活動として公文書等をピリピノ語に翻訳することがある。また研究所はセミナーや研究会を開催した。

1976年:初等教育に関する児童の学業達成状況の調査 (SOUTELE) (綾部編1995:194)

1977年:サント・トマス大学の Sytangco は Scientific Dictionary English- Pilipino を発刊する。特に医学用語を中心として、Lupon と同じアプローチを用いて語造成をおこなう。○Santiago (1979:41)によれば、puristic であり、造語の材料ををタガログ語や他の土着語に仰いでいる。

1977年:Pandayan ng Literaturang Pilipino (PANDAYLIPI) was organized on March 12, 1977 by a group of professors at the Philippine College of Commerce (now Polytechnic University of the Philippines), PANDAYLIPI has a nationwide membership of teachers, instructors and professors teaching Filipino language and Literature. Its main objective is to help foster effective ways of teaching Filipino and appreciating Philippine literature. (Internet: Belvez)

1977年:Patnubay sa Korespondesiya Opisyal (Surian ng Wikang Pambansa) は公用文についてのガイドラインを提供した。ここでは、音素と表記との一対一対応を厳守している。(Santiago 1979:38)

1977年:バリオ・ハイスクールはバランガイ・ハイスクールに名称変更。→バリオ(スペイン語)バランガイ(タガログ語)

1977, Oct. 29-30: The Convention of the Batasang Bayan was held at Malacañng Heroes Hall, where English was the language used by the delegates who represented the different ethnic groups or regions of the country. (Santiago 1979: 10)ポイントは英語が使われたということ。

1977: Marcos declared a martial law.

1978年:Del Rosario の同僚たちは9冊の技術用語のパンフレットを刊行する。それはapplied mathematics, applied science, agriculture, agricultural engineering, animal husbandary, veterinary medicine, forestry and journalism and publishing に関するものだった。

1978: The Experimental Elementary Education Program (EEEP) in 1978 showed that pupils consistently got higher scores in subjects taught in Filipino than those in English. (Sutaria 1989:30)

1978: Most deliberations and all measures presented at the Batasang Pambansa In Its sessions were in English, although the assemblymen had been exhorted to learn to speak Pilipino. (Sutaria 1989:10)

1979年:文部省は初等第1年で地方語を授業用語として用いることを再び許可した。

1979年:初等教育普及の地方格差是正と完全普及を目指した「地方教育普及発展プログラム」(PRODED)を策定する。開始は1982年より。(綾部編1995:194)

1980年:国勢調査によれば、英語を話せる数は65%にのぼる。(Gonzalez 1988. p.41 The Role of English and Its Maintenance in the Philippins; Language Surveys in the Philippines(1966-1984 p.59)

1980: Sangunian ng Wika sa Pambansang Pagpapaunlad (SANGWIKA) was organized in 1980 by the Institute of National Language (INL), now Commission on the Filipino Language (CFL), the SANGWIKA members come from different government departments, bureaus, offices, and agencies. Majority of them are training officers, administrative officers, information officers, cultural officers, and other officials whose functions are related to or connected with language use in office transactions, communication, and correspondence. Among its primary objectives are to help in the implementation of laws, orders, memoranda, circulars, and other legal issuances pertaining to the use of the Filipino languages as official language, in general, and as medium of official transactions, communication, and correspondence in particular. (Internet: Belvez)

1980: Kapatiran ng mga Kawal na Manunulat sa P(F)ilipino (KAKAMPI) was organized in 1980 by a small group of senior and junior officers of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) connected with the Training Command (TRACOM) at Fort Bonifacio, Philippine Army. The initial members came from the Philippine Army and after three years membership included practically all branches of the AFP. The primary objective of KAKAMPI is to provide training to the members in the art of writing in Filipino, thus enhancing the use of the language in the AFP and upgrading the sense of nationalism among the military. (Internet: Belvez)

1980’s: Pambansang Samahan sa Wika (PSW) was organized in the early 80’s through the efforts of a group of professors from the University of the Philippines (UP). At present, its members are instructors and professors all over the country. Among its primary objectives is to help in the development and propagation of Filipino and to develop effective strategies for teaching Filipino. (Internet: Belvez)

1982年:初等教育の新カリキュラムが公布され、翌年から実施される。(綾部編1995:194)

1982年:文部省報告によると、西ミンダナオ島だけでも私立のマドラサスクールが500校あった。英語とフィリピノ語による政府の管理を嫌って、私立のマドラサスクールが多い。(小野原信善 1997:74)

1982: “Household and School Matching Survey (HSMS)” was conducted by EDPITAF. According to this study, up to 32% of the variation in academic achievement is explained by home background variables. Among the predicator variables, the use of electricity has the highest independent contribution to the measures of learning. (Sutaria 1989:28)

1982: Kalipunan ng mga Kasapi–Kamaynilaan (KASAPI–MM) was organized in 1982 by the Institute of National Language (INL), now Commission on the Filipino Language (CFL), the KASAPI-MM is composed of representatives from the Seven (7) municipalities and 10 cities in Metro Manila who have undergone training on the Filipino language. Its main objectives are to help in the use of Filipino as official transactions, communication, and correspondence in their respective municipalities/cities. It also organizes the youth and provides them with training on the art of writing, encouraging them to actively participate and help in the propagation of the national language. (Internet: Belvez)

1982:The Education Act of 1982 created the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports

1983(June) : Revised Curriculum for Elementary Education (NESC) was started to enhance quality, efficiency with strong emphasis on the 3R’s and values education. (Sutaria 1989:15)

1984年:文部省はイスラム教徒のマドラサスクールを学校制度の中に正式に認める決定を下した。(小野原信善 1997:73)

1986: 48名の the 1986 Constitutional Commission のメンバーがアキノ大統領から任命され、憲法の原案を作成する。「メンバーはThe Philippine Constitution and Political Science (Pasimio) p.422に記載されている」

1986: After the EDSA revoluction, the Secretary of Education, Culture and Sports set up sa study group including the Language Education Council of the Philippines, an umbrella organization of 13 language societies, to examine the performance of the educationsl system with particular regard to bilingual education. (Sutaria 1989:311)

1986: The Study “Eleven Years of Bilingual Education in the the Philippines (1974-1985)” was conducted by the Linguistic Society of the Philippines. This study found that the type of school affected achievement scores of students. Findings indicated that the highest scorew were obtained by students from excellent private schools, followed by excellent public schools, then the poor private schools and finally students of poor public schools. (Sutaria 1989:27)

1987年1月: The Institute of Philippine Languages [IPL](1987-1991) replaced the Institute of National Language (1937-1987) by virtue of Executive Order NO. 117 issued by President Aquino in January 1987. (Internet: Catacataca)

1987年:The 1987 Constitution, Article XIV, Section 7 states that “for purposes of communication and instruction, the official languages of the Philippines are Filipino and, until otherwise provided by law, English.”

1987 (Feb.2): Since the ratification of the new Constitution, the Philippine national language has been called Filipino. @ The change of “P” to “F” in “Filipino” was also mandated by the New Constitution. The Institute of National Language had developed an alphabet which increased the number of letters from 20 to 28, includeing “F”. The Department issued this to the field through DECS Order No. 81, s. 1987. (Sutaria 1989: 312)

1987 (May 21): DECS Order (No.52) was issued, which stated “The regional languages shall be used as auxiliary languages in Grades I and II and as initial language for literacy where needed. The goals of the Bilingual Education Policy shall be :the development of Filipino as a linguistic symbol of national unity and identity; the cultivation and elaboration of Filipino as a language of scholarly discourse that is to say, its continuing intellectualization; Tertiary level institutions shall lead in the continuing intellectualization of Filipino. The program of intellectualization shall also be pursued in both the elementary and secondary levels. DECS shall cooperate with the National Language Commission which, according to the 1987 Constitution, shall be tasked with the further development and enrichment of Filipino. (Sutaria 1989: 354)

1987: 1987 Constitution provides that a commission on national language should be established by Congress.

1987年:87年憲法(the Freedom Constitution)は上記方針の確認し、公用語はフィリピーノ語と英語の二つとなる。
Article XIV LANGUAGE の部分
Sec.6. The national language of the Philippines is Filipino. As it evolves, it shall be further developed and enriched on the basis of existing Philippine and other languages.
Subject to provisions of law ans as the Congress may deem appropriate, the Government shall take steps to initiate and sustain the use of Filipino as a medium of official communication and as language of instruction in the educational system.
Sec.7. For purposes of communication and instruction, the official languages of the Philippines are Filipino and; until otherwise provide by law, English.
The regional languages are the auxiliary official languages in the regions and shall serve as auxiliary media of instruction therein. Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis.
Sec.8. This Constitution shall be promulgated in Filipino and English and shall be translated into major regional languages, Arabic, and Spanish.
Sec.9. The Congress shall establish a national language commission composed of representatives of various regions and disciplines which shall undertake, coordinate, and promote researches for the development, propagation, and presentation of Filipino and other languages.
日本語訳は大上正直の訳文を参考にしながら河原が行う。
(第6項 フィリピンの国語はフィリピノ語である。それが発達するにつれて、現存のフィリピンの言語を元にして、より一層発達させて豊かにしてゆくものとする。法の規定に従い、また国会が妥当とみなす限りにおいて、政府はフィリピノ語を公的なコミュニケーション並びに学校教育の場での教育言語とするために、さまざまな方策を取らなければならない。
第7項 コミュニケーションと教授用という目的のために、フィリピンの公用語はフィリピノ語であるが、法律に定められた時期まで、英語も公用語である。地域言語は当該地域の補助公用語であり、それに従い補助教育言語である。スペイン語とアラビア語の使用は選択的に行われるものとする。)

1987: 新憲法の第14条第7節の規定を受けて、2言語併用教育政策に関する省令(87-52号)が発表され、1973年に発表された2言語併用教育政策に関する省令に取って代わった。(大上正直 1997:54)

1987:1987年憲法で中等教育も無料となった。

1987:1987年憲法制定後、これまで教育・文化・スポーツ省の管轄下にあった国語研究所(Instititute of National Language)は、フィリピン諸語研究所(Linangan ng maga Wika sa Pilipinas)になった。(大上正直 1997:49)

1987:the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports which later became the Department of Education, Culture and Sports in 1987 by virtue of Executive Order No. 117. The structure of DECS as embodied in EO No. 117 has practically remained unchanged until 1994.

1987: In 1987, then President Corazon C. Aquino penned Executive Order No. 118 creating the Presidential Commission on Culture and Arts. (Internet: NCCA)

1987年:教育の「中期開発計画(1987-92)]が実施されている。(綾部編1995:194) @ The Medium Term Plan (1987-1992) started as the opening of barangay high schools and state colleges and universities; the increase of scholarship and loan grants, the Science Education Development Plan (SEDP) was formulated to systematically upgrade science education at all levels… (Sutaria 1989:4) [about language policy nothing is mentioned]

1988, Aug.15: アキノ大統領は事務連絡等にフィリピノ語の利用を勧め、機関の名称をフィリピノ語に翻訳するように政令を公布した。安井(日経新聞1988-9-29) @According to Sutaria (1989:359), on Aug.25, Executive Order No.335 was issued, whose title was “Enjoying all Departments/ Bureaus/ offices/ Agencies/ instrumentalities of the government to take such steps as are necessary for the purpose of using Filipino language in official transactions, communications and correspondence.”:

1. Take steps to enhance the use of filipino in all official communications, transactions and correspondence in their respective offices, whether national or local; 2.Assign one or more personnel, as may be necessary, in every office to take charge of all communications and correpondence written in Filipino; 3. Translate into Filipino names of offices, buildings, public offices, and signboards of all oddices, divisions or its instrumentalities, and if so desired, imprint below in smaller letters the English text; 4. Filipinize the “Oath of Office” for government officials and personnel; 5. Make as part of the training programs of personnel development in each office the proficiency in the use of Filipino in official communications and correpondence.
To implement such ofjectives, the Institute of Philippine Language is hereby ordered to formulate and implement programs and projects.

1988 (Aug. 15): アキノ大統領はマラカニアン宮殿における演説において、「以前は、どの言語がフィリピン国全体のしかるべき言語であるのか、お互いに理解し得ないところがあったが、その点はご破算にして、今や我々の諸語を統合した形のフィリピノ語と呼ばれる国語の発展に向けて突き進もうとしている。これに伴い、経済、社会、教育、および文化の面での発展を達成し得る。自分としても、この重要な事項における関係者の努力に対し、支援を惜しまない。…」と述べ、国語の普及に対して、協力的な姿勢を示した。(大上正直 1997:60)

1988年8月:行政命令第335号で、全官庁で、部局名をフィリピン語で表示すること、官庁文書をフィリピン語化せよと命令した。各課には英語からフィリピン語への翻訳担当者が指名されたが、それ以上の変化はもたらさなかった(鈴木 1997: 288)@行政命令第335号に対して、非タガログ系の人々から反発が出る。下院において、議員総数の約半数にあたる90数名が、この命令に反対する、一方セブ州は、これに対抗して、教育用語および公用語としてフィリピノ語を使用することを禁じ、かわりにセブアノ語と英語を使用させる条例を出した。(大上正直 1997:67)

1988年:Samahan ng mga Edukador sa Filipino (SEDFIL) was organized in 1988 through the initiative of a group of professors at the Philippine Normal University who are teaching Filipino as a subject on teaching other subject areas using Filipino as medium of instruction. The core group of members then were PNU-based professors but presently the less than a thousand members are from the different regions of the country. Its main objectives are to help educators in the use of Filipino language as medium of instruction and to help in the development and promotion of Filipino. (Internet: Belvez)

1988年8月19日:アキノ大統領はマラカニアン宮殿で演説を行う。「以前は、どの言語がフィリピン国全体のしかるべき言語であるのか、お互いに理解し得ないところがあったが、その点はご破算にして、今やわれわれの諸語を統合した形のフィリピノ語と呼ばれる国語の発展に向けて突き進もうとしている。これに伴い、経済、社会、教育および文化の面での発展を達成し得る。自分としても、この重要な事柄における関係者の努力に対して支援を惜しまない。このような行動をわが国国民は長い間待ちに待った。国語が完全に花を咲かせるには、そう時間はかからないと、自分は期待している。それぞれの分野でフィリピノ語を実際に話そうではないか。」(大上正直 1997:60)

1988年:Executive Order No. 335, signed by President Corazon C. Aquino on August 25, 1988, enjoins all departments/bureaus/offices/agencies/instrumentalities of the government to take such steps as are necessary for the purpose of using Filipino language in official transactions, communications and correspondence. This order is practically a reiteration of several orders and memoranda issued by President Ferdinand E. Marcos; e.g. Executive Order No. 96 (October 24, 1967) decreeing that all government edifices, buildings and offices be named in Pilipino (now Filipino), Memorandum Circular No. 172 (March 27, 1968) directing strict compliance with Executive Order No. 96 and the use of Pilipino in official letterheads and for oaths of office of all government officials and personnel; and Memorandum Circular No. 384 (August 17, 1970) requiring all government offices to assign personnel who will take charge of official correspondence in Pilipino (Filipino).
The specific instructions of the Order are: (1) to take steps to enhance the use of Filipino in official transactions, communications and correspondence in their respective offices, national and local; (2) assign one or more personnel, as may be necessary, in every office to take charge of all communications and correspondence written in Filipino; (3) translate into Filipino names of offices, buildings, public edifices, and signboards of offices, divisions or its instrumentalities, and if so desired, imprint below in smaller letters the English text; (4) Filipinize the “Oath of Office” for government officials and personnel; and (5) make as part of the training programs for personnel development in every office the proficiency in the use of Filipino in official transactions, communications and correspondence. (Panfilo D.) Catacataca

1988年8月25日:Executive Order No. 335が出される。source
On August 25, 1988, then President Corazon Aquino signed Executive Order No. 335 enjoining all departments/bureaus/offices/agencies/instrumentalities of the government to take such steps as are necessary for the purpose of using the Filipino language in official transactions, communications, and correspondence. The order was issued on the belief that the use of Filipino in official transactions, communications and correspondence in government offices will result to a greater understanding and appreciation of government programs, projects and activities throughout the country, thereby serving as an instrument of unity and peace for national progress.
All departments/bureaus/offices/agencies/instrumentalities of the government are enjoined to do the following:

1. Take steps to enhance the use of Filipino in official communications, transactions and correspondence in their respective offices, whether national or local;
2. Assign one or more personnel, as maybe necessary, in every office to take charge of communications and correspondence written in Filipino;
3. Translate into Filipino names of offices, buildings, public edifices, and signboards of all offices, divisions or its instrumentalities, and if so desired, imprint below in smaller letters the English text; Filipinize the “Oath of Office” for government officials and personnel; Make as part of the training programs for personnel development in each office the proficiency in the use of Filipino in official communications and correspondence.
The Commission on the Filipino Language, formerly Institute of Philippine/ National Language, is ordered to formulate and implement programs and projects for the full and effective implementation of the objectives expressed in the Executive Order.

1988 (Sept.9): DECS Order (No.84)による Use of Filipino Language in Official Transactions, Communications and Correspondence.がExecutive Order No.335 を遵守するように出される (Sutaria 1989:359) 。

1988年:中等学校の授業料が無償とされている。そのために、たくさんの生徒が進学できるようになった。教育機会の拡大と平等化を促進している。問題点として、公立中等学校の生徒の急激な増加と、これによる教室の不足である。一部の私立学校では、生徒を公立学校に奪われて、生徒が減少するような場合も見られた。『もっと知りたいフィリピン、第2版』p.199

1988年:イスラム教徒のマドラサスクールは46校あり、約6000人の生徒と250人の教師を擁していた。そこでは、月曜日から金曜日までは、英語とフィリピノ語によるカリキュラムに沿った授業が行なわれ、土曜日と日曜日にはアラビア語のカリキュラムが実施された。(小野原信善 1997:73)

1989: The provincial government (Cebu), under the administration of former Gov. Emilio “Lito” Osmena, enacted an ordinance banning the use of Tagalog- based Filipino as medium of instruction in public schools and language of official communications in the province (Espiritu 1999: 65).

1990 May: In Cebu, the local officals, led by Osmen, asked the Cebu Regional Trail Court for a preliminaray injuction against DECS orders requiring the use of Filipino as medium of instruction in this province and the implemetntatin of the bilingual policy (Espiritu 1999: 65).

1990?: A case was filed with another court in the region, this time to stop the implementation of Executive Order No. 335 issued by President Corazon Aquino (Espiritu 1999: 65).

1990年:初等学校の就学率は99%であるが、終了は70%に満たない。中等学校は55%の就学率である。(綾部編1995:199)

1990: The Laguna copper plate について、1990年にある古物業者がLaguna de Bay 地域でpot huntersから購入したものである。Antoon Postma, Johan de Casparis によって、調べられたが、主言語は古マレー語であり、それは古タガログ語と関連すると言う。(Kasaysayan vol.2 p.227)

1990: Pambansang Unyon ng Tagasalin (PUNTA) was organized in 1990 by the National Committee on Language and Translation (NCLT) under the Subcommission on Cultural Dissemination of the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA) as Unyon ng mga Tagasalin sa Pilipinas ((UNTAP), it was later on changed to Pambansang Unyon ng Tagasalin (PUNTA). It has for its members practitioners and mentors in the art of translation. One of its objectives is not only to encourage practitioners in the art of translation but also to take necessary steps to professionalize the art of translation. (Internet: Belvez)

1990: In 1990, a Congressional Commission was created to survey Philippine education. The Commission, more popularly known as EDCOM, recommended among other things the use of Filipino as language of instruction at all levels by the year 2000. The language recommendation has not been acted upon by Congress up till now because of strong oppositions raised by various sectors. (Internet: Espiritu)

1990年:教育・文化・スポーツ省は Edukasyon Pilipino sa Diwa, sa Isip, sa Salita at sa Gawa (意識、思考、言語および行動におけるフィリピン教育)の普及と取り組んだ。フィリピン人であることに誇りを持たせ、国家を愛し、伝統的なフィリピン人の価値観を呼び起こさせることが目的であった(鈴木 1997: 287)。

1991年:フィリピン諸語研究所(Linangan ng maga Wika sa Pilipinas)の名称がフィリピノ語委員会(Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino)になった。そして大統領直属の機関となった。同委員会は西暦2000年を目指して、現在のフィリピン語をさらに豊かにさせ、国語ばかりでなく、公用語、教授用語として洗練されたものにすべく、調査・研究・普及などに力を注いでいる。(大上正直 1997:49)

1991年6月6日:共和国法7104号が上下両院で可決、それを受けてフィリピノ語委員会(Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino)が創立される。現在、大統領府の管轄の下に置かれている。現在1名の委員長と各主要言語を代表する10名(うち2名が常勤で、残りは非常勤)の委員で構成されている。(大上正直 1997:60)

1991年8月14日:Republic Act. 7104がだされて、the Commission on the Filipino Languageが作られることになった。ソース

1991年:The Commission on the Filipino Language (CFL), a government office in charge of the devopment and propagation of the national language, under the Office of the President (R.A. No. 7140, s. 1991), is instructed with the full and effective implementation of the objectives of the Order. The CFL replaced the Institute of Philippine Languages (1987-1991) which, in turn, replaced the former Institute of National Language (1937-1987). The CFL is also one of the cultural agencies attached to the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS). (Internet: Panfilo D.) @ For the implementation of the Order the CFL was directed to formulate and implement programs and projects which include: (1) information campaign on the importance and necessity of Filipino as an effective instrument for national unit and progress; (2) translation into Filipino of Executive Order No. 335 as well as government terms and phrases to be utilized as reference materials for all offices; (3) training of all government officials and personnel in use of Filipino; (4) monitoring of the implementation of the Order and submitting periodic progress report of implementation directly to the office of the President of the Philippines or thru the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS); and (5) taking into account other strategies for full implementation of the objectives of the Order.  The Order does not prohibit the use of English in official communications and correspondence, for the Constitution provides that Filipino and English are the official languages of the country. However, the regional languages can be used as auxiliary languages in the regions and shall serve as auxiliary media of instruction therein, but shall not replace Filipino and English. All government departments, bureaus, offices, agencies and instrumentalities, government-owned or controlled corporations included, are not only expected to take the necessary measures to promote the use of Filipino in their official transactions, communications and correspondence, in their respective offices and jurisdiction to accomplish the objectives of the Order but also to internalize such objectives; and officials and employees are expected to be proficient in Filipino through seminars, workshops, and other forms of training.  For the speedy and effective implementation of the Order, the CFL has prepared and published the necessary materials which include: (1) Patnubay sa Korespondensya (1983 and 1987 editions); (2) Alpabeto at Patnubay sa Ispeling ng Wikang Filipino; (3) Salin sa Filipino ng mga Tanggapang Pampamahalaan; (4) Mga Katawagang Pampamahalaan; (5) Diksyunaryo ng Wikang Filipino; (6) Manwal sa Korespondensya Opisyal, and several other publications. (Internet: Panfilo D.) @The Commission on the Filipino Language (CFL) is a government office under the Office of the President (OP) created by Republic Act No. 7104, signed on August 14, 1991 by Former President Corazon C. Aquino. The 1987 Constitution, Article XIV, Section 8 provides that “the Congress shall establish a national language commission composed of representatives of various regions and disciplines which shall undertake, coordinate and promote researches for the development, propagation, and preservation of Filipino and other Philippine languages.
The CFL’s vision is to make Filipino an effective instrument of national development. Its mission is to undertake, coordinate and implement research programs and projects for the further development and enrichment of the Filipino language. CFL likewise aims at the preservation and maintenance of other native languages of the country.
Among the powers, functions and duties of the CFL are (1) to formulate policies, plans and programs to ensure the further development, enrichment, propagation and preservation of Filipino and other Philippine languages; (2) promulgate rules, regulations and guidelines to implement its policis, plans and programs; (3) undertake or contract research and other studies to promote the evolution, development, enrichment and eventual standardization of Filipino and other Philippine languages; (4) propose guidelines and standards for linguistic forms and expressions in all official communications, publications, textbooks and other reading and teaching materials; (5) encourage to promote, through a system of incentives, grants and awards, the writing and publication in Filipino and other Philippine languages of original works, including textbooks and reference materials in various disciplines; (6) create and maintain within the Commission a division of translation which shall encourage through incentives, undertake and vigorously support the translation into Filipino and other Philippine languages of important historical works and cultural traditions of ethnolinguistic groups, laws, resolutions, and other legislative enactments.
The CFL shall be composed of eleven (11) commissioners, one of whom shall serve as Chairman. The Commissioners shall represent the major Philippine languages: Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon and the major languages of Muslim Mindanao. The Northern Cultural Communities, Southern Cultural Communities and such other Philippine languages or ethno-linguistic regions as the Commission may decide upon; and at least four (4) of these Commissioners shall also represent various disciplines. (R.A. No. 7104, Section 5)
The five promotional divisions of the CFL are: (1) Linguistic Division whose major functions are to undertake continuing research on phonology, morphology, syntax and semantics of Filipino; write an official reference grammar and a pedagogical grammar of Filipino; and study the possible applications of modern linguistic theory and grammatical noderls to the analysis of Filipino structure; (2) Lexicography Division that is in charge of conducting studies on Philippine lexicography problems and explore the applicability of modern lexicographical theories to the compilation of Philippine dictionaries; periodically revise existing dictionaries and compile new ones in order order to meet the communication needs of governemnt, the schools, and other sectors of society; and document current changes in meaning, pronunciation and usage; (3) Translation Division that is in charge of undertaking a continuing study of both theoretical and practical problems of translation related to Filipino and other Philippine languages; translate into Filipino (and other Philippine languages if required and necessary) important government records, documents, laws, proceedings, manuals and other related materials; and translate into Filipino major works in literature an in the various fields of knowledge; (4) Information and Publications Division whose major functions included the maintenance of accurate record of all laws, acts, executive orders, administrative circulars and all other official issuances on the national language; organizing training, conferences, seminars, workshops and fora on the national language and its use, and coordinate promotional and campaign activities with language organizations and Filipino teachers associations; and preparing informations and Filipino teachers associations; and preparing informations brochures on all aspects of the national language; and (5) Other Languages and Literature Division tasked with gathering of bibiliographical information on the various ethnolinguistic groups, with special emphasis on language and inter-ethnic communication, oral and written literature, folk arts, and culture; collecting, conducting studies and preservation of available documents, relics and artifacts of local culture.

1991:Now, the National Commission on Culture and the Arts is also mandated to undertake translation work through one of its national committees, the Committee on Language and Translation. NCCA sponsored a project in 1991 which surveyed individuals and institutions undertaking translation, and came out with a bibliographic listing of translated works.(Internet: Aurora E. Batnag)

1992: in 1992, this presidential directive was enacted into law– Republic Act 7356. The original bill was jointly authored by Senators Edgardo Angara, Heherson Alvarez, Leticia Ramos Shahani, and Congressman Carlos Padilla. (Internet Ncca)
Formulate policies for the development of culture and the arts
To coordinate & implement the overall policies and program of attached agencies on the development of culture and arts as stated under Executive Order No. 80
Administer the National Endowment Fund for Culture and the Arts
Encourage artistic creation within a climate of artistic freedom
Develop and promote the Filipino national culture and arts; and
Preserve Filipino cultural heritage

1992年:フィリピノ語委員会(Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino)が「フィリピノ語―英語辞典:を発行する。特徴として、タガログ語以外の主要な8言語などから取り入れられた語彙が見出し語として少なからず掲載されている。(大上正直 1997:61)

1993年:教育の「中期開発計画(1993-98)」が実施されている。(綾部編1995:196)

1993年:Created under Republic Act.7356,the National Commission for Culture and the Arts(NCCA), through its Committee on Language and Translation (CLT) – under the Subcommision on Cultural Dissemination – is tasked to “encourage and monitor a comprehensive program of translation which shall make works by Filipinos and selected foreign classics equally accessible to Filipino and selected foreign classics equally accessible to Filipino as well as international readers.”(Sec.12 c) 4).   In l993, the CLT of the then Presidential Commission for Culture and the Arts, through its member Andres Cristobal Cruz, presented a project proposal to prepare and publish a Filipino translation manual. During the term of Dr.Paz M.Belvez as Chair of the CLT (from July l993 to May l995) the initial materials for a translation manual “Patnubay sa Pagsasalin”(literally “Guide to Translation”) were gathered.   When Virgilio S.Almario was elected May 1995 as Chairman of CLT, the translation manual project was finally officially approved and undertaken by the members and officials then of the CLT. From December 26 to 28, l995, a workshop was conducted at the Poveda House of Prayer in Tagaytay City. Workshop discussions included outlining the manual according to the contents and a review of the literature,Philippine and foreign.   The draft was written by Prof.Virgilio S.Almario; Teo. S.Antonio; Aurora Batnag, Ph.D.; Prof.Paz M.Belvez, PhD; Executive Director of the Commission on Filipino Language Pamfilo Catacataca, Ph.D; Andres Cristobal Cruz; Clemencia C.Espiritu,Ph.D; Prof. Maria Victoria Gugol; , and resource persons, Mario I.Miclat, Ph.D; and Teresita Fortunato, Ph.D. (Internet: Andres Cristobal Cruz)→詳しくは注へ

1993年6月29日:ラモス大統領はラジオ番組のインタビューにおいて次のように語る。「政府の発表した西暦2000年のフィリピン(sic)という政策に、言語政策の推進も含めた。なぜなら、われわれは、今も、自己の文化、とくに国語を豊かにする努力をしているからだ。しかし、私は、英語のような他の言語の能力も身につけなければならないと言いたい。英語のお陰で、われわれは相対的に有利な立場を維持してきているので、そのような言語を排除すべきではない。それは、国際的な取引において、現在使用している言語であるからだ。」(大上正直 1997:60)

1994年8月7日:下院議長のJose de Veneciaはイギリスからの訪問議員団に対して、フィリピンは依然として、世界第3番目、アジアで最大の英語国であり、英語を重視してゆくと述べている。(Manila Bulletin Aug.7, 1994)

1994: 1994 when the Commission on Higher Education (CHED), and 1995 when the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) were established to supervise tertiary degree programs and non-degree technical-vocational programs, respectively.

1994: in 1994, the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) was created by virtue of Republic Act No. 7722, otherwise known as the Higher Education Act of 7722, otherwise known as the “Higher Education Act of 1994”. One of the first things CHED did was to revise the curriculum. (Internet: Espiritu) @ In 1994, Republic Act No. 7722, creating the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) was signed. This Act which is know as the “Higher Education Act of 1994” provides that the CHED shall be independent and separate from the DECS and attached to the Office of the President for administrative purposes only. Its coverage shall be both public and private institutions of higher education as well as degree-granting programs in all post-secondary educational institutions, public and private. One of the first steps undertaken by CHED was to update the General Education Curriculum (GEC) of tertiary courses leading to an initial bachelor’s degree covering four (4) curriculum years. This was done to make the curriculum more responsive to the demands of the next millennium. (Internet: Espritu)

1995: 初等教育から高等教育に至るすべての教育段階の就学年齢が一歳繰り下げられた。これにより、初等学校の就学開始年齢が6歳になった。@フィリピンの教育システムは、アメリカと基本的には同じです。新学年学期は6月初旬に始まり、3月に終了します。 1995年度の改正で5歳からの1年間の幼稚園(プレスクール)、6歳から6年間の小学校は無償義務教育です。私立の小学校では7年間の教育も一般的に行われてきました。無償義務教育を行う公立小学校の年限を7年に延長するなどの検討も行われていますが、私立の小学校では従来から7年教育を基本とする所も多く、日本のように国によって固定的に制約されるということもなく、比較的自由で柔軟な教育システムが私立学校群では存在しているようです。ソース(フィリピンアカデミックネットワーク)

1995: Under the administration of Gov. Pablo Garcia, another ordinance was issued by the provincial board of Cebu mandating the exclusive use of English in all private and public schools in Cebu’s 48 municipalities and four component cities (Espiritu 1999: 65).

1996: In 1996, Commission on Higher Education issued a CHED Memorandum Order (CMO) No. 59 titled New General Education Curriculum (GEC) which was implemented, beginning school year 1997-1998 as part of all baccalaureate degree programs in all Higher Education Instructions (HEI’s) in the Philippines. The minimum requirements for this mandatory GEC, include 9 units in Filipino, and 9 units in English. For the first time in so many years, Filipino and English are given equal treatment in the curriculum. Literature, which used to be studied as language, is now treated as an art form under Humanities and has been allocated 6 units. (Internet: Espiritu) @ The requirements of the new GEC are embodied in the CHED Memorandum Order (CMO) No. 59, s. 1996. Listed under miscellaneous of this CMO is its language policy which is as follows:

In consonance with the Bilingual Education Policy underlined in DECS Order No. 52, Series of 1987, the following are the guidelines vis-a-vis medium of instruction, to wit:
Language courses, whether Filipino or English, should be taught in that language.
At the discretion of the HEI, Literature subjects may be taught in Filipino, English or any other language as long as there are enough instructional materials for the same and both students and instructors/professors are competent in the language.
Courses in the Humanities and Social Sciences should preferably be taught in Filipino.
(Internet: Espritu)

1997: To accommodate the needs of HEI’s offering technology and non-HUSOCOM (humanities, social science and communication) courses, CHED issued Memorandum Number 04, s. 1997), superceding CMO No. 59, s. 1996. This memo differentiates the Filipino language requirements for HUSOCOM and non-HUSOCOM courses’ i.e., 9 units for the former and 6 for the latter. As regards medium/media of instruction, CHED Memo 59 states that: (1) “Language courses whether Filipino or English should be taught in that language.(2) At the discretion of the HEI’s, Literature subjects may be taught in Filipino, English or any other language as long as there are enough instructional materials for the same and both students and instructors/professors are competent in the language. (3) Courses in the humanities and social sciences should preferably be taught in Filipino. ”

1997年:セブ州政府は「同州の48に及ぶ町と4つの市の公立・私立の学校において、教授用語は英語とすること。教授用語として、フィリピノ語を使ったものは行政処分にする」旨の条例95-11号を配布して、これを実施した。これに対して、大統領府のフィリピノ語委員会は、上記条例の即時撤回を求めているが、現在まで解決していない。(大上正直 1997:68)

1998年8月4日: エストラダ大統領は、英語よりも国語であるフィリピン語を使用するように国民に呼びかける演説を行った。

1998年8月8日 (朝日新聞インターネットニュースより)
英語よりフィリピノ語をとの比大統領呼びかけが波紋呼ぶ
フィリピンのエストラダ大統領が、英語ではなく国語のフィリピノ語(言語実態はタガログ語)を公の場で使うように呼びかけたことに対し、反発の声が上がっている。同国はタガログ語以外にも複数の主要言語を抱えているためで、タガログ語圏以外の出身の下院議員を中心とする反対派は「フィリピノ語は共通語とは言い難く、問題が多い」と指摘している。
大統領は4日、マニラ市内の大学で演説し、「日本の首相や韓国大統領は英語を話さない。国の発展にたいせつなのは英語ではない」と話したうえで、公立学校でフィリピノ語を教育言語として使うことや、公務員は公式の会議でフィリピノ語を使って「国民の模範」を示し、民間企業や報道機関も準じることなどを求めた。
これに対し、南部ミンダナオ島出身の下院議員らが「議会での質疑がフィリピノ語で行われたら、われわれには理解できない」などと強い不満を表明。さらに反対派は、1987年に制定された憲法で「公用語はフィリピノ語。法改正までは英語も使える」と定めている条文を取り上げ、「英語の不使用を議会の承諾なしに大統領が勝手に決めることはできない。職権乱用だ」と、反発を強めている。

1998年12月 07日:大統領行政命令46号により、Presidential Commission on Educational Reform (PCER)がつくられた。それは、Ten-point action planである。

2000年4月10日:Philippine Agenda for Educational Reform: The PCER Reportが公表された。これは、教育の改革案である。語学教育については、現行の2言語教育を推進するのであるが、vernacularによる教育、特に小学一年生段階を勧めている。それには例のユネスコの勧告案などを例に挙げている。

2011年:2011年時点において、全国で教室が約13万室足りず、教師は約10万人、教科書は955万冊不足しているという。(鈴木有理佳)

2011年:ベニグノ・アキノ政権は基礎教育の拡大に動き出した。新たな制度は中等教育を2年間上積みし、さらに5歳児(Kindergarten、日本でいう幼稚園年長組)から公立教育を開始するK+12制である。詳細にはK-6-4-2で、小学校6年間、中学校4年間、さらには高校2年間となる。すでに今年度はキンダーガーテンを義務化した。今後の計画は、早くて2012年度に小学校と高校に入学する生徒達に新制度のカリキュラムを適用し、2016年度には中等教育5年目を、翌2017年度には同6年目を実施する予定だ。(出典:鈴木有理佳「基礎教育を6-4制からK-6-4-2制へ」ジェトロアジア経済研究所)

文献・資料
鈴木有理佳「基礎教育を6-4制からK-6-4-2制へ」ジェトロアジア経済研究所 http://www.ide.go.jp/Japanese/Publish/Download/Overseas_report/1106_suzuki.html

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